History of Operating Systems

During the early days of computers incase you wanted to change anything then you had to change the wires but later it was replaced by the operating systems. The instructions were basically given to the computer with punch cards as well as magnetic tapes. Incase you wanted to run the computer with a different program then you had to wipeout the first program from the memory and then load another program. For one to run more than one program then you need a boss program, one that controls all other programs.

First generation operating systems

During the development of the first electronic computers in the 1940s they were created without any operating systems. All the programming was done with machine language and often by wiring in plugboards so as to control the basic functions of the machine. During this generation the computers were simply were generally used to solve simple math calculations and the operating systems were never needed.

Second generation

The second operating systems were introduced in the early 1950s and it was named GMOS by general motors for IBM machine 701. The operating systems in the 1950s were called singe-stream batch processing systems simply because they submitted data in groups. The new machines were called mainframes and are used by professional operators in large computer rooms. Only big government agencies could afford these computers due to their price tag.

Third generation

By the late 1960s designers of operating systems were able to develop systems of multiprogramming in which a computer program was a major part in the development of operating systems because it allowed a CPU to be busy nearly 100% of the time.

Fourth generation

Fourth generation operating systems saw the creation of personal computers. These computers were very similar to the minicomputers that were developed in the third generation although they were way cheaper. A personal computer is very affordable in that it made it possible for a single individual to own one for personal use while the minicomputers were still highly priced. One of the major creations in the development of microcomputers is the creation of Microsoft operating systems. Windows operating systems was created back in 1975 by Bill gates and Paul Allen.


Windows was developed by Bill Gates back in 1983 and was released by Microsoft corporation. They introduced windows as graphical user interface which simply means that it is user friendly. The first version of Windows 1.0 release and runs through MS-DOS. Later Windows 95 was released and it runs on MS-DOS. Windows 95 had many advantages and features which included start menu, windows explorer and Taskbar. Microsoft introduced Windows NT3.1 back in 1993 which was the first version and part of the newly introduced window NT operating systems. It is 32-bit operating systems and in 1996 windows NT 4.0 was introduced which incorporated versions of windows explorer. Windows NT was originally introduced to work on high-end systems and servers.

In 2000, windows 2000 was released which is a combo of 95 and 98 as it had many features. The features include windows desktop updated, media explorer and internet explorer. This is a consumer-oriented feature and further introduces a new theme called Luna which is a more user-friendly interface. One of its best features is that it has internet connection feature and it allows many machines on LAN to share one internet connection.

The release of windows 2000 came with four different service packs and it has worked successfully on diverse server and workstations. There are a number of commands and options for windows 98 and 2000 which were improved to enhance device manager and windows media player. Windows 2000 is also the latest NT-kernel windows operating system and it has four different editions.

Windows XP

Windows XP was introduced was introduced into the market in 2001 and it is a combination of 98 and 95. Windows XP uses the kernel of windows NT 5.1. The performance of the kernel is the best and it is used in Windows XP. It faces a lot of criticism in the field of security. There are different versions of windows XP which include:

  • Windows XP home edition which is meant for home use as it is commonly used in most homes. It possesses features such as remote desktop.
  • Windows XP professional which is commonly being used for business purposes and it also has the same features as Windows XP.
  • Windows XP media center Edition was introduced back in 2002 for desktops and mainly for the use of home entertainment and problems.it has all the features that is contained in Windows XP professional.

Other versions of Windows XP include windows XP Tablet pc edition, Windows XP embedded and windows Stater edition. Other versions of windows that have been released include windows 7, windows 8 and windows 10.


The history of Linux started in 1991 with the entry of a personal project by a college student whose name was Linus. Linux developed the operating system for the hardware he was using for 80386 operating systems. After the entry of windows XP into the market Linux gained popularity. At first Linux was only used by LINUS only for the Linux Kernel. The name LINUX was changed to LINGUX back in 1996 as GNU and LINUX work together and support each other technically. The first version of LINUX was released in 1994 and the second version in 1996. This version of LINUX is much better than the first version due to its performance. Currently the kernel can handle multiple processors at the same time. Most of the major companies such as IBM, Compaq and Oracle announced their support for LINUX with the support of the big brands that it has in the market.


iOS is the operating system for mobile phones as it was developed by Apple industry for iPhone, iPod and iPod touch. There are close to 13 versions of the computers all of which have advanced features and qualities for ease of the consumers.…

Continue Reading...

Basic Introduction to Operating Systems

Basically an operating system is the single most important program built to run on computer throughout its life, while all other programs may be called apps. In other words, the operating system acts as an interface that bridges the user with that of hardware of the computer. It is this system that controls and guides the application programs on your computer. An operating system or OS in short is notable in its functions like memory storage, information and processors and compatibility to devices. For the users this means great convenience, high efficiency and constantly evolving service.

You will find that no devices can be operational or functional without the operating system. It has two very important purposes and these are it allocates and controls the uses of resources within the computer system for various kinds of tasks and also among different types of users. The other task it performs is that it provides the bridge between the user and the computer with a dedicated interface so as to make it easy for coding, debugging of apps and creating new programs.

Details of Operating System

All computers must be able to manage the memory within their systems, traffic controlling, a scheduler, file system and I/O programs through their own basic level programming that is in-built into the system. In order to make all this possible the in-built system within a computer must have an Interface that allows users, system and application programs and hardware to act in synchrony to achieve the net user’s experience in it totality.

In short, the operating system must have these features so as to give the high-end experience. These may be well protected and supervisory mode and easily allows for disk access and the networking security for the file system. The users may need to execute each program with ease and enable virtual memory management and multitasking. The OS program should be capable of managing I/O operations and also be able to manipulate the files. This would mean that the system instantly recognizes an error and automatically manages it. It again would be able to protect all information and resources as well as ably managing allocation of resources.

You may now get the gist of the whole thing that an OS is set of specialized programs that is always in running mode whenever the system is plugged on. It is therefore quick to note the inputs from keyboard and keep track of files and directories and then send forth output gathered from the same on the display screen including other attached devices.

Operating System Acts as the Manager

The first and foremost part played by a manager in any organization is that he or she gives guidance and goals to rest of the staff. In a computer system the operating system firstly boots the computer so that the rest of the interconnected functions are ready to receive further orders. In fact all the peripheral devices like the mouse, keyboard and CPU are managed by it. Then by giving command guidelines and graphical user interface it gives the users their own unique personal experience.

Then along with the above it shares the CPU time with the help of various application and devices. It then provides help through file management so that you are able to file, save, retrieve and manipulate data. Again, in order to avoid errors it takes measures automatically to prevent it from occurring.

Through processor management it puts the tasks into correct order and makes them manageable before it passes onto the CPU. Through memory management it coordinates data to and from RAM or Random Access Memory. It then also determines the need for virtual memory.

The device management ensures that it provides the interface the moment the computer is connected. There is also a standard communication among the tasks performed that is between the computer and the software. It never allows one task to superimpose on another task and guides the whole system to function in synchrony.

You may choose any one of the top operating system as basically they offer the same standard function although this may again vary from individual to individual and the types of tasks to be performed. …

Continue Reading...