During the early days of computers incase you wanted to change anything then you had to change the wires but later it was replaced by the operating systems. The instructions were basically given to the computer with punch cards as well as magnetic tapes. Incase you wanted to run the computer with a different program then you had to wipeout the first program from the memory and then load another program. For one to run more than one program then you need a boss program, one that controls all other programs.
First generation operating systems
During the development of the first electronic computers in the 1940s they were created without any operating systems. All the programming was done with machine language and often by wiring in plugboards so as to control the basic functions of the machine. During this generation the computers were simply were generally used to solve simple math calculations and the operating systems were never needed.
The second operating systems were introduced in the early 1950s and it was named GMOS by general motors for IBM machine 701. The operating systems in the 1950s were called singe-stream batch processing systems simply because they submitted data in groups. The new machines were called mainframes and are used by professional operators in large computer rooms. Only big government agencies could afford these computers due to their price tag.
By the late 1960s designers of operating systems were able to develop systems of multiprogramming in which a computer program was a major part in the development of operating systems because it allowed a CPU to be busy nearly 100% of the time.
Fourth generation operating systems saw the creation of personal computers. These computers were very similar to the minicomputers that were developed in the third generation although they were way cheaper. A personal computer is very affordable in that it made it possible for a single individual to own one for personal use while the minicomputers were still highly priced. One of the major creations in the development of microcomputers is the creation of Microsoft operating systems. Windows operating systems was created back in 1975 by Bill gates and Paul Allen.
Windows was developed by Bill Gates back in 1983 and was released by Microsoft corporation. They introduced windows as graphical user interface which simply means that it is user friendly. The first version of Windows 1.0 release and runs through MS-DOS. Later Windows 95 was released and it runs on MS-DOS. Windows 95 had many advantages and features which included start menu, windows explorer and Taskbar. Microsoft introduced Windows NT3.1 back in 1993 which was the first version and part of the newly introduced window NT operating systems. It is 32-bit operating systems and in 1996 windows NT 4.0 was introduced which incorporated versions of windows explorer. Windows NT was originally introduced to work on high-end systems and servers.
In 2000, windows 2000 was released which is a combo of 95 and 98 as it had many features. The features include windows desktop updated, media explorer and internet explorer. This is a consumer-oriented feature and further introduces a new theme called Luna which is a more user-friendly interface. One of its best features is that it has internet connection feature and it allows many machines on LAN to share one internet connection.
The release of windows 2000 came with four different service packs and it has worked successfully on diverse server and workstations. There are a number of commands and options for windows 98 and 2000 which were improved to enhance device manager and windows media player. Windows 2000 is also the latest NT-kernel windows operating system and it has four different editions.
Windows XP was introduced was introduced into the market in 2001 and it is a combination of 98 and 95. Windows XP uses the kernel of windows NT 5.1. The performance of the kernel is the best and it is used in Windows XP. It faces a lot of criticism in the field of security. There are different versions of windows XP which include:
- Windows XP home edition which is meant for home use as it is commonly used in most homes. It possesses features such as remote desktop.
- Windows XP professional which is commonly being used for business purposes and it also has the same features as Windows XP.
- Windows XP media center Edition was introduced back in 2002 for desktops and mainly for the use of home entertainment and problems.it has all the features that is contained in Windows XP professional.
Other versions of Windows XP include windows XP Tablet pc edition, Windows XP embedded and windows Stater edition. Other versions of windows that have been released include windows 7, windows 8 and windows 10.
The history of Linux started in 1991 with the entry of a personal project by a college student whose name was Linus. Linux developed the operating system for the hardware he was using for 80386 operating systems. After the entry of windows XP into the market Linux gained popularity. At first Linux was only used by LINUS only for the Linux Kernel. The name LINUX was changed to LINGUX back in 1996 as GNU and LINUX work together and support each other technically. The first version of LINUX was released in 1994 and the second version in 1996. This version of LINUX is much better than the first version due to its performance. Currently the kernel can handle multiple processors at the same time. Most of the major companies such as IBM, Compaq and Oracle announced their support for LINUX with the support of the big brands that it has in the market.
iOS is the operating system for mobile phones as it was developed by Apple industry for iPhone, iPod and iPod touch. There are close to 13 versions of the computers all of which have advanced features and qualities for ease of the consumers.…Continue Reading...
To choose from Mac or Windows is absolutely an individual’s choice. Many people are comfortable with Mac OS and a few feel comfortable with the windows. Many technical aspects differentiate both of them. Let us see a few technical aspects which differentiate Mac and Windows. When it comes to computers the Mac OS versus Windows is one of the most controversial debates ever. Whoever is buying a new computer may go through this and then decide what is good for them. Few features interest the buyers. The selection of the final OS depends on the customer priority of the features. Comparing both the operating system feels like you are comparing a sunflower with a Tulip. Both are unique in their way. They are highly capable, fast, and functional. The operating system is selected according to the users’ preferences.
Security & Price
In the matter of security Mac receives very little viruses than compare to Windows. Windows are more vulnerable to viruses. The people who illegally hack and access the computer mostly target the Windows PC. Most people use the Microsoft Windows latest version that is is better compared to the previous versions. Even though Windows always had security issues when compared to Apple computers. If you have a Mac then you are very less prone to hacking and insecurities. The latest versions of Windows have created better improvements in the matter of security. But Mac has always been the priority for the people who are looking for privacy and security. A good quality product will always have a greater price. Mac always gives you the value for money. Majorly the high-quality components are used in assembling Mac computers. Mac computer comes along with its peripherals and it is a little expensive when compared to the Windows PC. While Windows PC comes at a reasonable rate. The peripherals and components which are used in Windows PC are less expensive. And the overall cost is relatively reasonable than the Mac PC. If if you are looking for a budget-friendly PC then you can go for the Windows PC. Anyways high-end hardware is always expensive in the majority of the cases.
Software and Operating System
Both Mac PC and Windows PC are highly capable fast and great in performance. In this matter, it is completely dependent upon the user’s preference. Many software are created for Mac in all these years. But when it comes to gaming it is always Windows which dominates the Mac. Most of the gaming software developers prefer making software that is compatible with the Windows PC because it has a larger use of a paste when compared to the Mac OS. Another criterion here is that you will find many free programs that will be available for the Windows PC but they are not freely available for the Mac. In the matter of software availability and free programs, the majority of the people would choose Windows PC rather than the Mac. Many popular applications like Adobe products and Microsoft Office products are available.
Compatibility and Aesthetics
The Apple company has manufactured many products like Apple TV, iPad, iPhone, and many more. It has created great compatibility between all its products. An Apple computer can easily interact with any of its products which are run by Mac OS. The Microsoft PC is compatible with Xbox and also Android devices. When it comes to the matter of compatibility Mac is always in the number one position. When it is the question of quality Macintosh computers are known to give exceptional quality across all the products. These products include iPhone, iPad, I watch, I TV, and many more. Apple products are built with proper designing and the overall look of Apple products is aesthetically pleasing. When it comes to Windows PC it is famous for being highly customizable. The spare components are available in the market with varied quality. When the overall quality of a product is taken into consideration then it is Mac which wins this category.
Boot Time, Upgrade & Drivers
Customization in Apple products is limited when compared to the Windows PC. Because Windows PC will have a higher number of manufacturers that have more pre-built options. For the manufacturers who build the Windows PC, there is always a huge range to select from. If you are looking out for amazing customization or upgrades then you can always go with Windows PC. Compare to the previous versions the latest version of Windows has a very fast boot time. When you compare the boot time of Mac and Windows PC then both the good times are almost the same. Apple manufactures the drivers and its hardware by itself and it manufactures the most efficient hardware. While Windows PC has many different manufacturers but different drivers. Since the quality of the hardware and the drivers differ it is a little hard to keep all the drivers updated. Mac has a great advantage because it can be updated as it produces all its hardware by itself.
Support, Gaming, and repair
90% of the market share is owned by the Windows PC in the matter of gaming. Windows PC has better options to upgrade like the graphics card. When they use this card it can play many new games instead of replacing the entire computer. But this is not possible in the Mac OS. The majority of the people go for the Windows PC if they are very much interested in gaming. The technical support of Mac provides greater assistance since it offers many in-person supports also and has many stores around the world. Since a Windows PC is assembled by different hardware it will be a real heat problem if you tried and fix by using the customer assistance of different brands. This is the reason why Mac is great when it comes to customer support. It is a little hard task when it comes to the repair of Mac PC since the make of a Mac product is very compact …Continue Reading...
An operating system performs all the basic tasks such as managing files, processes and memory. Operating systems act as the manager of all resources that is resource management. This means that an operating system acts as an interface between the user and the machine. There are different types of operating systems in the market which include:
Batch operating system
This type of operating system does not interact with the user directly. It has an operator who takes similar jobs which possess the same requirement and then group them into batches. It’s the responsibility of the operator to sort the jobs in a similar manner according to their needs.
Due to the challenge of knowing the time that is required by any job to complete the processes. The processors of batch system know exactly the duration in which it will take to complete the task. It also has the advantage of sharing batch systems by multiple users. They also have a very small idle time even for batch processes. It is also very easy to manage large amounts of work repeatedly.
The operators of the computer should be well known with the batch systems. They are very hard to debug and sometimes costly. Other types of jobs will have to wait for a certain period of time in case any of the jobs fail.
Time-Sharing Operating systems
Each of the tasks is given time to execute so that all the tasks are able to work smoothly. This is because each of the user gets a time as a single system. The systems are also known as multitasking systems in that the tasks can be single user or different users and the time that each task is given is known as quantum. After each of the time interval then the operating system switches over to the next task. Some of the examples of time-sharing operating systems include Multics, Unix etc.
Each of the task gets an equal opportunity and there is a vert little chance of duplication of the software. The idle time of the CPU can also be reduced by a great magnitude.
The shortcoming with the system is that it is unreliable. There is also data communication problems and one need to take care of security and integrity of the user programs and the data.
Distributed operating system
This type of operating system is a recent advancement in the world of computer technology and are being widely accepted all over the world. Various autonomous computer systems work together using a shared communication network. The independent systems possess their very own memory unit and CPU. They are often referred to as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. The processor of these systems differs in size and function. The greatest benefit with working with this type of system is that it is always possible for one user to access the files or software which are not actually present in a system but on some other system connected in the network. Some of the examples include LOCUS.
One of the greatest advantages with distributed processing is that failure of one of the systems will not affect the network communication as the other systems will function perfectly well. Computation is also very fast and durable since the resources are being shared. There is also delay in data processing and electronic mail increases the speed of data exchange. This is ideal for sites and applications that can’t afford to go down for while being maintained such as casual dating sites like FuckFinder.App and dating apps like Tinder among other various user based applications.
The entire communication will failure in case there is failure of the main network. The language used are not yet well defined and these types of systems are readily not available.
Network operating systems
These types of systems run on a server and provide the capability to manage data, groups, security, users, applications and other network functions over a small private network. Another important aspect of network operating system is that all users are well aware of the underlying configuration of the users within the network and their individual connections. This is the reason why these computers are known as tightly computed systems.
Network operating systems hold the advantage of having highly stable centralized servers. Their security servers are also handled through servers the server access is possible remotely from different locations and systems. The new network technologies as well as hardware upgrade can easily be integrated.
The servers are very costly and users have to depend on a central location during most of their operations. The maintenance and updates are also done regularly.
Real-time operating systems
These types of operating systems serve as the real time systems in that the time that is required to process and respond to time is very small. The time interval is called responsive time. They are often used when time requirements are strict like missile systems, robot and air traffic control systems.…Continue Reading...
Basically an operating system is the single most important program built to run on computer throughout its life, while all other programs may be called apps. In other words, the operating system acts as an interface that bridges the user with that of hardware of the computer. It is this system that controls and guides the application programs on your computer. An operating system or OS in short is notable in its functions like memory storage, information and processors and compatibility to devices. For the users this means great convenience, high efficiency and constantly evolving service.
You will find that no devices can be operational or functional without the operating system. It has two very important purposes and these are it allocates and controls the uses of resources within the computer system for various kinds of tasks and also among different types of users. The other task it performs is that it provides the bridge between the user and the computer with a dedicated interface so as to make it easy for coding, debugging of apps and creating new programs.
Details of Operating System
All computers must be able to manage the memory within their systems, traffic controlling, a scheduler, file system and I/O programs through their own basic level programming that is in-built into the system. In order to make all this possible the in-built system within a computer must have an Interface that allows users, system and application programs and hardware to act in synchrony to achieve the net user’s experience in it totality.
In short, the operating system must have these features so as to give the high-end experience. These may be well protected and supervisory mode and easily allows for disk access and the networking security for the file system. The users may need to execute each program with ease and enable virtual memory management and multitasking. The OS program should be capable of managing I/O operations and also be able to manipulate the files. This would mean that the system instantly recognizes an error and automatically manages it. It again would be able to protect all information and resources as well as ably managing allocation of resources.
You may now get the gist of the whole thing that an OS is set of specialized programs that is always in running mode whenever the system is plugged on. It is therefore quick to note the inputs from keyboard and keep track of files and directories and then send forth output gathered from the same on the display screen including other attached devices.
Operating System Acts as the Manager
The first and foremost part played by a manager in any organization is that he or she gives guidance and goals to rest of the staff. In a computer system the operating system firstly boots the computer so that the rest of the interconnected functions are ready to receive further orders. In fact all the peripheral devices like the mouse, keyboard and CPU are managed by it. Then by giving command guidelines and graphical user interface it gives the users their own unique personal experience.
Then along with the above it shares the CPU time with the help of various application and devices. It then provides help through file management so that you are able to file, save, retrieve and manipulate data. Again, in order to avoid errors it takes measures automatically to prevent it from occurring.
Through processor management it puts the tasks into correct order and makes them manageable before it passes onto the CPU. Through memory management it coordinates data to and from RAM or Random Access Memory. It then also determines the need for virtual memory.
The device management ensures that it provides the interface the moment the computer is connected. There is also a standard communication among the tasks performed that is between the computer and the software. It never allows one task to superimpose on another task and guides the whole system to function in synchrony.
You may choose any one of the top operating system as basically they offer the same standard function although this may again vary from individual to individual and the types of tasks to be performed. …Continue Reading...
Here is a great video that provides and amazing crash course on operating systems. It is under 15 minutes long and covers history, functions, and innovations. Check it out!… Continue Reading...